Area Efficiency and Energy

Groups: 
  • Design Projects
Category: 
  • Management

Basic

Requirements and Criteria Type: 
  • Technical Specification (Requirement Specifications)

Main Objective: 

Motive

The resources used by a building are often measured per square metre. This does not reward area efficient solutions in buildings. Buildings with a large area per user can appear more energy efficient than buildings with little space per user, based on specific energy use per square metre.

You can reward wise environmental choices by setting requirements for resource use per user.

Argument

Efficient area use saves resources. Therefore, there is a need to focus attention on the number of users and not just area when comparing the environmental quality of buildings.

The purpose of this requirement is to focus attention on the calculation of indicators in new projects and help ensure that more clients in the public sector prepare key figures and environmental indicators for existing buildings of the same type. (Benchmarking).

 

 

Requirement Specification: 

The project must document the following indicators for energy divided by user, for standard and actual energy calculations:

  • Calculated net and delivered energy need per square metre heated GIA.
  • Calculated net and delivered energy need per user.

Energy calculations are made in accordance with TS/SN 3031:2016 using real values, which means values for the specific building (guidance in TEK17, §14-2).

A simple calculation must be made to show how you have arrived at the number of users. See the guidance on the definition of users of building types.

If there is no information about users, it must be estimated by the project on the basis of available data and qualified estimates. All assumptions and calculations must be stated in the submitted documentation.

Examples of sets of indicators per building type
Building type  NS 3031

Indicator 1 based on area

[kWh/m2] or [CO2 -eq/m2]

Indicator 2 based on users, kWh or emissions per
Office buildings x FTEs
Kindergartens x Kindergarten place
School buildings x Pupils
Nursing homes x Resident day
Sports buildings x Users
Cultural buildings x Users

Documentation of the Requirement Specification: 

Reference level for the subject. Provisions stipulated in Acts and Regulations.

The requirements for calculating indicators apply to heated area in accordance with the calculation rules in the regulatory guidance for TEK concerning measuring rules.

Information about the Requirement Specification: 

The requirement was created to obtain key figures and environmental indicators for existing buildings of the same type to enable comparisons of different activities or buildings.

Examples of indicators that can be obtained from Statistics Norway and Kostra for municipalities.
Building type Indicators Statistics Norway Comments

General information

No. of inhabitants in municipality

No. of FTEs in municipality
 
Administrative buildings No. of FTEs in municipal administration  
Kindergartens

No. of kindergartens (municipal)

No. of children in municipal kindergartens

No. of FTEs in municipal kindergartens
Can be used against energy use in municipal kindergartens. Most municipalities also have private kindergartens. Need data for both segments. The split between private and municipal kindergartens varies from municipality to municipality.
Schools

No. of primary and lower secondary schools

No. of pupils in municipal schools, weighted

No. of FTEs in municipal schools

Private schools are not included.

Living and service centres

Municipal FTEs in care and nursing

Municipal FTEs in health and social services

Residents in accommodation with 24-hour staffing and residents in institutions

 
Sports buildings   Need user numbers. Many municipal halls have supervisors that keep user statistics. Plus users of swimming pools and ticket sales.
  No. of FTEs in culture Need user numbers. For example, figures for ticket sales for cinemas, theatres, etc.

 

Example

A new school is going to be built in the municipality. The users are pupils.

The indicator is calculated using the number of pupils stated by the developer.

You can choose to include the number of staff in the number of users, as long as you do so throughout.

The following data from the same municipality is used to calculate key figures:

  • Average energy use/emissions for all equivalent schools in the municipality.
  • The total number of pupils in these schools. Alternatively, these can be obtained from Statistics Norway/Kostra.

Data from existing buildings should only be compared with calculations for delivered energy pursuant to NS 3031.

Private schools and pupils at private schools do not need to be included.

It will be natural to base key figures on all municipal primary and lower secondary schools. Upper secondary schools owned by the county authority are included in the key figures for the same county authority.

If you want, data can be obtained from more than one municipality to produce comparable key figures. For example, small municipalities with few buildings of each type. The most important thing is to provide source references and ensure transparency. Key figures must be presented as both actual and degree day corrected values.

 

Advanced

Requirements and Criteria Type: 
  • Technical Specification (Requirement Specifications)

Main Objective: 

Motive

The resources used by a building are often measured per square metre. This does not reward area efficient solutions in buildings. Buildings with a large area per user can appear more energy efficient than buildings with little space per user, based on specific energy use per square metre.

You can reward wise environmental choices by setting requirements for resource use per user.

Argument

Efficient area use saves resources. Therefore, there is a need to focus attention on the number of users and not just area when comparing the environmental quality of buildings.

The purpose of this requirement is to focus attention on the calculation of indicators in new projects and help ensure that more clients in the public sector prepare key figures and environmental indicators for existing buildings of the same type. (Benchmarking).

Requirement Specification: 

The project must document the following indicators for energy divided by user, for standard and actual energy calculations:

  • Calculated net and delivered energy need per square metre heated GIA.
  • Calculated net and delivered energy need per user.

Energy calculations are made in accordance with TS/SN 3031:2016 using real values, which means values for the specific building (guidance in TEK17, §14-2).

A simple calculation must be made to show how you have arrived at the number of users. See the guidance on the definition of users of building types.

If there is no information about users, it must be estimated by the project on the basis of available data and qualified estimates. All assumptions and calculations must be stated in the submitted documentation.

Examples of sets of indicators per building type
Building type  NS 3031

Indicator 1 based on area

[kWh/m2] or [CO2 -eq/m2]

Indicator 2 based on users, kWh or emissions per
Office buildings x FTEs
Kindergartens x Kindergarten place
School buildings x Pupils
Nursing homes x Resident day
Sports buildings x Users
Cultural buildings x Users

In addition, indicators for real energy calculations should be compared with relevant key figures based on building type in comparable activities, e.g. municipalities, county authorities and the state. If you do not have existing key figures, they must be produced in the project.

Comparable key figures must be documented using available sources and by documenting the calculation of applicable key figures. See the guidance. Key figures can be documented both as actual and degree day corrected values.

Documentation of the Requirement Specification: 

Reference level for the subject. Provisions stipulated in Acts and Regulations.

The requirements for calculating indicators apply to heated area in accordance with the calculation rules in the regulatory guidance for TEK concerning measuring rules.

Information about the Requirement Specification: 

The requirement was created to obtain key figures and environmental indicators for existing buildings of the same type to enable comparisons of different activities or buildings.

Examples of indicators that can be obtained from Statistics Norway and Kostra for municipalities.
Building type Indicators Statistics Norway Comments

General information

No. of inhabitants in municipality

No. of FTEs in municipality
 
Administrative buildings No. of FTEs in municipal administration  
Kindergartens

No. of kindergartens (municipal)

No. of children in municipal kindergartens

No. of FTEs in municipal kindergartens
Can be used against energy use in municipal kindergartens. Most municipalities also have private kindergartens. Need data for both segments. The split between private and municipal kindergartens varies from municipality to municipality.
Schools

No. of primary and lower secondary schools

No. of pupils in municipal schools, weighted

No. of FTEs in municipal schools

Private schools are not included.

Living and service centres

Municipal FTEs in care and nursing

Municipal FTEs in health and social services

Residents in accommodation with 24-hour staffing and residents in institutions

 
Sports buildings   Need user numbers. Many municipal halls have supervisors that keep user statistics. Plus users of swimming pools and ticket sales.
  No. of FTEs in culture Need user numbers. For example, figures for ticket sales for cinemas, theatres, etc.

 

Example

A new school is going to be built in the municipality. The users are pupils.

The indicator is calculated using the number of pupils stated by the developer.

You can choose to include the number of staff in the number of users, as long as you do so throughout.

The following data from the same municipality is used to calculate key figures:

  • Average energy use/emissions for all equivalent schools in the municipality.
  • The total number of pupils in these schools. Alternatively, these can be obtained from Statistics Norway/Kostra.

Data from existing buildings should only be compared with calculations for delivered energy pursuant to NS 3031.

Private schools and pupils at private schools do not need to be included.

It will be natural to base key figures on all municipal primary and lower secondary schools. Upper secondary schools owned by the county authority are included in the key figures for the same county authority.

If you want, data can be obtained from more than one municipality to produce comparable key figures. For example, small municipalities with few buildings of each type. The most important thing is to provide source references and ensure transparency. Key figures must be presented as both actual and degree day corrected values.

Related links: 

Published: 29. Jan 2018, Last modified: 31. May 2019