Energy Efficiency and Power

Groups: 
  • Design-Build Contracts
Category: 
  • Energy

Basic

Requirements and Criteria Type: 
  • Technical Specification (Requirement Specifications)

Main Objective: 

Motive

Energy consumption has a big financial impact throughout a building's lifetime.

Energy consumption in a building accounts for 40% of the energy consumed nationally, mainly electricity. Ever more buildings are being built that require energy. It is important to achieve better security of supply through flexible and efficient power and energy consumption.

The cost of expanding a power network to safeguard security of supply in the energy system is enormous and reducing power requirements is a goal.

Argument

Higher investment costs to reduce energy needs and power use can help ensure good overall finances due to lower operating costs. Ensuring a building is optimally designed can lower energy needs and thus release funds for other purposes throughout the building's lifetime. Some of the most important factors for reducing the need for power in a building are therefore building energy efficiently and flexibly.

Reducing power requirements helps to relieve local and central power plants and energy infrastructure. The price of power is determined by the maximum power use. Measures to reduce power use can thereby reduce energy costs. Utilising flexible energy solutions also reduces the vulnerability inherent in relying on one source of energy, e.g. by you being able to use energy you have stored.

Requirement Specification: 

The building must be built as a passive building in accordance with the passive building standards NS3700/NS3701. A report containing energy calculations conducted in accordance with NS 3700/NS 3701 must be submitted prior to handover:

  • The documentation for selected components and solutions in the completed building must include the following:
    • Confirmation that the input data used for the energy calculation is representative of the completed building
    • Report from leak testing of the completed building pursuant to NS-EN ISO 9972
    • Appended thermal imaging report pursuant to NS-EN 13187 if the building has undergone thermal imaging
  • The evaluator of whether the building satisfies the criteria for passive buildings specified in the standard must issue a certificate with the report. As a minimum, the certificate must contain:
    • Requirements for heat loss figures (NS 3701 point 4.1).
    • Requirements for cooling needs (NS 3701 point 4.3).
    • Requirements for heating needs (NS 3701 point 4.2).
    • Requirements for energy supply (NS 3701 point 4.5).
    • Minimum requirements for building elements, components, systems and leakage figures (NS 3701 point 5).

 

Information about the Requirement Specification: 

NS 3700/NS 3701 sets requirements for residential and non-residential buildings such that they can be defined as passive buildings and low energy buildings in a Norwegian climate. The standards are based on energy need calculations pursuant to NS 3031 with standardised input data.

The standard encompasses definitions, requirements concerning heat loss figures, maximum heating and cooling needs, and energy need for lighting, as well as minimum requirements for individual building elements. The standard also specifies requirements for leakage figures, testing procedures, measurement methods and reporting power performance upon the completion of non-residential buildings.

The standard can be used to:

  • Assess whether buildings satisfy the passive building requirements.
  • Set requirements for products and building elements used in passive buildings.
  • Set structural engineering requirements for the execution of passive buildings.

Advanced

Requirements and Criteria Type: 
  • Technical Specification (Requirement Specifications)

Main Objective: 

Motive

Energy consumption has a big financial impact throughout a building's lifetime.

Energy consumption in a building accounts for 40% of the energy consumed nationally, mainly electricity. Ever more buildings are being built that require energy. It is important to achieve better security of supply through flexible and efficient power and energy consumption.

The cost of expanding a power network to safeguard security of supply in the energy system is enormous and reducing power requirements is a goal.

Argument

Higher investment costs to reduce energy needs and power use can help ensure good overall finances due to lower operating costs. Ensuring a building is optimally designed can lower energy needs and thus release funds for other purposes throughout the building's lifetime. Some of the most important factors for reducing the need for power in a building are therefore building energy efficiently and flexibly.

Reducing power requirements helps to relieve local and central power plants and energy infrastructure. The price of power is determined by the maximum power use. Measures to reduce power use can thereby reduce energy costs. Utilising flexible energy solutions also reduces the vulnerability inherent in relying on one source of energy, e.g. by you being able to use energy you have stored.

Requirement Specification: 

The building must be built as a passive building in accordance with the passive building standards NS3700/NS3701. A report containing energy calculations conducted in accordance with NS 3700/NS 3701 must be submitted prior to handover:

  • The documentation for selected components and solutions in the completed building must include the following:
    • Confirmation that the input data used for the energy calculation is representative of the completed building
    • Report from leak testing of the completed building pursuant to NS-EN ISO 9972
    • Appended thermal imaging report pursuant to NS-EN 13187 if the building has undergone thermal imaging
  • The evaluator of whether the building satisfies the criteria for passive buildings specified in the standard must issue a certificate with the report. As a minimum, the certificate must contain:
    • Requirements for heat loss figures (NS 3701 point 4.1).
    • Requirements for cooling needs (NS 3701 point 4.3).
    • Requirements for heating needs (NS 3701 point 4.2).
    • Requirements for energy supply (NS 3701 point 4.5).

Minimum requirements for building elements, components, systems and leakage figures (NS 3701 point 5).

In addition, measures must be taken to reduce simultaneous power consumption such as load reduction, load transfer and local energy storage.

Contactors must install power reducing measures. The documentation of the input data and calculations must comply with the applicable NS 3031 with a recognised dynamic simulation programme for power calculations that is available on the market and has been validated pursuant to the applicable NS EN ISO 52016-1/52017-1.

The power reducing measures must be collated in a power budget with energy items pursuant to NS 3031 for the net energy budget:
Power item   Power requirement [kW] Power requirement [kW/m2]
1a Room heating    
1b Ventilation heat    
2 Hot water    
3a Fans    
3b Pumps    
4 Lighting    
5 Technical equipment    
6a Room cooling    
6b Ventilation cooling    
7 Outdoors    
Sum effektbehov      

 

Information about the Requirement Specification: 

The power needed for heating is usually one of a building's greatest power requirements. This is calculated based on the outdoor temperature and the building's heat insulation. The calculated heating power is the power we need to supply to heat the building on the coldest days of the year. Power is stated in W (watts) or kW (kilowatts).

The building's energy systems must deliver the designed for indoor temperatures at the designed for outdoor winter temperatures in the building's location. The designed for power requirement for buildings is not regulated directly. It is regulated indirectly by setting requirements for security of supply and indoor temperatures.

Most large non-residential buildings have a power-based electrical tariff for grid rental. This means that in addition to the power consumed (kWh) they also have to pay for the electrical power (kW) drawn from the power grid. As a rule, the paid for power is calculated for the time of the year with the highest average power consumption (kWh/h). In addition to energy reducing measures, it is therefore also important to look at power reducing measures, i.e. measures that can keep maximum power use down.

At the same time, power use can be reduced by:

  • Accumulating and storing energy over shorter or longer periods.
  • Smart energy use management.
  • Load equalisation.
  • Operational measures.
  • Exchanging energy between buildings.

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Published: 08. Feb 2018, Last modified: 31. May 2019